Validation of The Malay Version Of Fagerstrom Test For Nicotine Dependence (FTND-M) Among a Group of Male Staffs in a University Hospital

Anne Yee H.A, Ng CG, Rusdi AR


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Malay version of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-M) based on a group of male staffs in the hospital. This study will also determine whether an abbreviated version of the FTND-M can be used as a screening tool for nicotine dependence. Methods: 107 male staffs participated in the study. They were given the FTND-M and Malay version of Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.)-L component. Their carbon monoxide level measured in their breath by using exhaled air. One week later, these participants were again given FTND-M. Result: The discriminatory ability of FTND-M was good with AUC 0.74 (P<0.01). The optimal cutoff point for FTND-M was >2 with the sensitivity of 70.1%, specificity of 70%, PPV of 79.7% and NPV of 58.3%. The FTND-M had moderate internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.67. The testretest reliability after 1 week was fair (Spearman’s rho=0.5, p<0.01). Total score of FTND-M was significant correlated with the biomarker (Spearman's rho=0.46, P<0.01). Factor extraction revealed 3-items from the 6 items FTND-M and became Brief FTND-M. The most valid cutoff point for BFTND-M >1which gave 78%, 62%, 77.6% and 62.5% respectively, which were also similar to that of FTND-M. Conclusion: The Malay version of FTND displayed and BFTND-M displayed fair psychometric performance among the male staffs, who were smokers in University Malaya Medical Center, Malaysia.


Smoking, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, smokingrelated disease, Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire

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